this word can only be associated with going for war)? What is the evidence for using
Jihad verse for this work?
Allah Taala states in the Quraan: And struggle for the sake of Allah as it is required.
Anas reported that the Messenger of Allah said: Whoso goes out in search of knowledge, he is in
the path of Allah till he returns. (Tirmizi)
In view of the above, it is permissible to go out in Jamaat as this is also fee-sabeelillah and
this has been emphasised in the Quran.
Fee sabeelillah includes all kinds of efforts and
struggle, e.g. tongue, pen, money, body, etc. (Kanzul Ummaal vol.10 pg.158)
How can Jamaat Tableegh use the ahadeeth of Jihad as a parable to them "going out" in
path of Allah?
This question has been replied in full from Hazrat Maulânâ Zakariyah (rahimuhullah alayh).
Hazrat Maulana Zakariyah (rahimuhullah alayh) mentions that, “…had this
question came from laymen, I would have had no surprise to it, but this question has actually
been risen by people of knowledge (Ahl ul Ilm)”.
Ulema know that even though the well
known (Ma'rûf) understanding of Jihad by way of customary understanding is Qitaal (to
engage in a battle field) but Juristic proofs (Nass) and Linguistics (Lugha) does not make
Jihad specific to Qitaal alone. It is understood that its meaning is much broader then that. The
fact is that the actual meaning of Jihad revolves around upholding the Word of Allah and
Qitaal is only the last and final resort in a situation where no other way of reconciliation is
found. Thus Qitaal is not the actual object (Maqsoodul Asl) of Jihad.
Tafsir Mazhari explains in the explaination of "َ ِ ُآ ُ ُ ْ َ َ ُل َ ِ ْﻝا َ ُهَو ٌ ْ ُآ ْ ُ َﻝ” (2:216), that the
virtue of Jihad is above all other rewards because it is a means of spreading Islam and a
means of guidance for the mankind. Thus anyone who gets guided from this effort, his reward
will be added to the rewards of those strugglers (mujahidîn) who became the means of his
guidance. Furthermore, what would be even more virtuous, are the Uloom of apparent (Zahir)
and unseen (Baatin) since they propagate the reality of Islam even more.
Now with that understanding if we see the sheer amount of guidance this work of Tableegh
has brought, no sane person can deny it. Thousands of Muslims have reformed themselves
towards praying punctually, even many non-Muslims have come into folds of Islam.
The complete discussion on the meaning of Jihad is available in the books of Hazrat Sheikh
Maulânâ Zakariya Kandhalvi (“Awjaz ul Masalik Saharh Muwatta Malik” and “Hashia of
Laami’ad daraari ‘alaaJami’ al bukhari”). According to Shariah, the definition of Jihad is “to
struggle”, and that it refers to the “Qitaal of Kufr” and its generalized understanding (Itlaaq) is
even in the meaning of Mujahada of Nafs. This would thus even include struggle against
Shaitaan, as well as transgressors (Fussaaq).
The Jihad with Kuffar is by way of hand as well as by way of tongue. The hadeeth of Rasul
Allah(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is famous wherein the definition of Mujahid is given.
ه !ﻝا "ﻡ ه ﺝ %&'
( ) * ا (ة ,ﻡ ـ 15 ـ 4)
Actual Mujahid is the one who struggles against ones own Nafs in obedience to Allah
Ulema have clarified that Prayer, Fast etc are more virtuous than Jihad since they are the
actual objectives themselves (Maqasid Li’einehi) and that is above Jihad. This is because the
objective of Jihad is to bring more and more people to practice according to Imaan and good
morals. This is even strengthened by the saying of Ibn Abideen who said that, there is no
doubt that Faraidh of Salaah and Zakaah etc. are more virtuous than Jihad since one is actual
obligation (Fardh ul Ain) and the later is sufficient obligation (Fardh ul Kifaaya) and that the
Jihad is ordained only to establish Salâah and Imaan. This is why its goodness is not within
itself rather because of the goodness of another action that comes because of it (Hasan
And goodness of Salâah is within itself. Thus any effort made for establishing the
Hasan Li’einihi becomes Hasan Lighairihi.
Imaam Bukhari (rahimuhullah alayh) in his Saheeh has presented the following hadeeth in
Book of Jihad (Kitaab ul Jihad):
َﻡ ْت/ َ0ْ1ا َﻡَ َ2 ٍ ْ0َ 4ِ( ِ5 ِ0َ ِ / ﻝا ُ /%َ!َ َ( ُر /7ﻝا
No dust afflicts a slave in path of Allah, lest that the fire touches it
Then Imam Bukhari (rahimuhullah alayh) establishes a whole chapter regarding walking for
the Salaatul Jumma, and presents a similar hadeeth as follows:
ْ"َﻡ ْت/ َ0ْ1ا ُ َﻡَ َ2 4ِ( ِ5 ِ0َ ِ / ﻝا ُ َﻡ/ َ8 ُ / ﻝا
َ َ ِر /7ﻝا
Those feet which get soiled in path of Allah, Allah will make fire Haraam on them.
Please note that the second hadeeth is regarding going in path of Allah and Imam Bukhari
(rahimuhullah alayh) has made it precedence (Istadlaal) for going to Jummah Salâah. Thus we
may conclude that “fi sabil illah” has more than one connotation. Also, if Imam Sahib
(rahimuhullah alayh) can do this much, then why is it so hard to understand that the scholars
of Tableegh (Ulema e Muballigheen) have used them as precedence for going out in path of
Allah for uplifting the word of Allah. Why can we blame the muballigheen and not Imam
Sahib (rahimuhullah alayh)?
Hadhrat Dehelvi (rahimuhullah alayh) in his Malfûz has stated that, “this travel (the travel for
Tableegh), hold the same qualities as that of battles of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) (Ghazwaat), and thus the hope is of such a reward as well. This though, is not Qitaal but is
similar to it, which even though in some aspect be of a lesser rank, but in other aspects is
greater then that.
Hazrat Maulânâ Zakariya Sahib (rahimuhullah alayh) mentions a narration of Hazrat Abu
Musa Al Ashari (rahimuhullah alayh) that a person asked Rasul Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) regarding two people who go in jihad, one for the booty and the other to show off his bravery.
Rasul Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) replied that the Jihad in path of Allah is only that which is
done for the upholding of the word of Allah. (Bukhari) Hafiz Ibn Hajr (rahimuhullah alayh)
says regarding this hadeeth that “Kalimat Allah” (Word of Allah) means “Call towards Allah
i.e. his religion” (Da’waah Ila Allah).
From the life of Rasul Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) we understand that the meaning of Jihad is
not linear as commonly understood rather it is dynamic and its generality encompasses aiding
of that which is intended from jihad as well. People of knowledge know this very well.
Allah(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) has said that waking (guarding) for one night at the borders is
better than the world and whatever is in it. And of course the guarding at the borders is not for
Qitaal rather to make safety of the Imaan and Salâah of Muslims.
So much so, that even in battle where Qitaal is made, if the opponent says Shahada and
accepts Islam, it becomes necessary to spare his life. The Qitaal was only there so that the
other could accept the truth of Tauheed. If that is so, then indeed if he had accepted the truth
even before Qitaal could start, his safety would have been necessitated and Qitaal would be
avoided. Would any one then argue that that Muslim did not go for jihad because he did not
end up fighting the opponent? From this we see that any struggle that brings one closer to the
truth, may it be in accepting tauheed for the first time or may it be in starting to practice upon
the tenets of that tauheed, all will be Jihad. Rasul Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) has said that
aiding a person coming from jihad with wealth is also jihad and looking after their family in
their absence is also jihad.
Hafiz Ibn Hajr (rahimuhullah alayh) says in Fathul Bâree that attaining the knowledge of the
basic principles of deen (religion), studying islamic theology, propagation of good and
forbidding of evil are all Jihad. Similarly authoring religious book, teaching different problem
of deen (masa’il), refuting the claims of unbelievers, debating them are also Jihad. So much
so that Imam Nawawi (rahimuhullah alayh) has presented thirteen different types of Jihad.It comes in the Quran,
َی َ:;یَأ ;4ِ0/7ﻝا ِ ِه َﺝ َر /&ُ ْﻝا َ" ِ ِ( َ7ُ!ْﻝاَو
O Prophet! Make Jihad with the unbelievers and hypocrites. (9:73)
In this Ayah the Prophet(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) has been commanded to do Jihad with the
unbelievers and hypocrites. We know numerous incidents of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)
doing Jihad bis Sayf (Qital or fighting with sword) with the unbelievers but this has not been
the case with the hypocrites. Perhaps, rather certainly, the meaning of Jihad encompasses
other forms besides Qital .
The same is the case in this other Ayah,
َ"یِ=/ﻝاَو اوُ َه َﺝ َ7 ِ( ْ ُ:/7َیِ ْ:َ7َﻝ َ7َ ُ0ُ
And those who do Jihad in our path we certainly guide them towards our way (29:69)
Rasul Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) sent out a Group of soldiers and said that, one from every
two should go, then the reward for both will be same (meaning that the one left behind will
look after the others family).
Do we not remember the incident of Khaybar. Sayyiduna Ali (radïAllahû Anhû) was given
the flag. Thereafter he asked Rasul Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) “Ya Rasul Allah, should I go
and do Qitaal with them until they come into folds of Islam?” Rasul Allah(sallallahu alaihi wasallam) replied, “Absolutely not, you go there and give them an invitation to come into folds of
Islam first. If even one person accepts Islam then that will be better than red camels (booty),
and if they deny then convince them to pay Jizya and if they even deny that then do Qitaal
with them”. It is deduced from numerous ahadith that general conception of Jihad is not Qitaal rather the actual intention in it is Imaan and upholding Allah’s word.
Hazrat Maulânâ Zakariyya Shaheb (rahimuhullah alayh) continues after this as well, however
I believe the understanding is now made that going out in Tableegh and establishing anything
that makes the establishment of Imaan and Salâah etc can be attributed to Jihad and fi
Finally, one more aspect that needs to be addressed here is that by proving the meaning of
Jihad for Da’wah Ila Allah and fortifying the security and safety of Islam, does not mean that
Qitaal is completely waived off. Remember that the Military Jihad is a branch within the
branches of Jihad, and when one is carrying out one branch, he is not liable to carry out the
other at the same time. Just as one would not hold a surgeon doctor, who is teaching in a
Medical University to be liable for not carrying out surgery while he teaches. He can only
fulfill one of his obligations at a time.
Thus, we have sufficiently addressed the role of Jihad in Tableegh and in Islam as a whole.