Imaam-e Daarul Hijrah; Imaam of Madina Munawwarah was the appellation of lmam Maalik (RA.).
As well as being a great muhaddith (Scholar of the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and mujtahid, Imaam Maalik (RA) was also renowned for his pious, abstinent God fearing, and truthful ways.
A great number of scholars and muhadditheen have spoken and referred to Imaam Maalik’ S (RA) great knowledge and literary works. Amongst his various literary compilations ‘ kitaabul Mu’atta’ is the most eminent.
Imaam Shaafi’ee (R.A.) has stated regarding ‘Kitaabul Mu’atta’: ‘On the face of the earth there is no kitaab more authentic than Mu’atta." It should be borne in mind that Imaam Shafi’ee (R. A.) passed away in the year 204 A.H. before the compilation of Sahih Bukhari. Today, it is a unanimously agreed opinion that Sahih Bukhari is ranked as No.1 in this field.
He was born in the era of Tabe Taabi’een, Imaam Maalik (R.A.) acquired knowledge from many famous Tabe Taabi’een, jurists and muhadditheen.
Due to Imaam Maalik’ s (R.A.) intelligence, efforts, zeal and determination, upon reaching the age of 17, he had acquired a vast amount of Islamic knowledge which was of great standard and it was at this very age, with the approval of his teachers and scholars that Imaam Maalik (R.A.) commenced teaching and conducting theories (Fataawaa).
NAME & GENEOLOGY/LINEAGE:
Maalik Ibn Anas Ibn Maalik Ibn Abi Aamir Ibn Umar lbnul Haarith Ibn Gaymaan Ibn Jushayl lbn Amr Ibnul Haarith Al - Asbahi..
RENOWNED ADDRESS / OTHER NAMES:
Abu Abdullah I Imaam Daarul Hijrah.
YEAR AND PLACE OF BIRTH:
The most authentic recording is 93 A.H in a place within the state of ‘Jarf’ called ‘Zee Marwah’.
Imaam Maalik (RA.) was a Tabe’ Taabi’ee. hence, he acquired a great amount of knowledge from Taabi’ een.
ACQUISITION OF KNOWLEDGE:
From infanthood Imaam Maalik (R. A.) was surrounded by the very gardens of Madinah Munawwarah. Imaam Maalik (RA) did not set foot outside Madinah Munawwarah for purposes of acquiring knowledge. His own household was a resort of knowledge.
Imaam Maalik (R. A.) acquired Qur’anic teachings from Naafe’ and Abdur Rahmaan Other than Naafe’, Imaam Maalik (RA) sought knowledge from others too. Namely, Abdur Rahmaan Ibn Hurmuz, Safwaan Ibn Sulaym, Ibn Shihaab Zuhri etc.
A SMALL GLIMPSE OF IMAAM MAALIK’S (R.A.) TEACHERS:
Rabee’atur Raa’ i, Naafe’ Maulaa Ibn Umar, Muhammad Ibn Muslim Ibn Shihaab Zuhri, Aamir Ibn Abdullah Ibn Zubayr, Zayd Ibn Aslam, Saeed Maq’baree, Abu Haazim, Salma Ibn Deenar, Shareek Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abu Numayr, Saalih Ibn Qay’ saan, Abuz-zinaad, Muhammad Ibn Munkadir (May Allah be pleased with them all).
A SMALL GLIMPSE OF IMAAM MAALIK’S STUDENTS:
Within Imaam Maalik's (RA.) teaching groups, the number of students is great. Qaazi Ayaadh (R.A.) has recorded over 1300, amongst this group were Imaam Maalik’s (R A.) own teachers, scholars, peers and subordinates - Namely a few are Ibn Shihaab Zuhri, Yahyaa Ibn Saeed Al-Qaari, Yazeed Ibn Abdullah, Sufyaan Thawri, Awzaa’i, Sufyaan Ibn Uyaynah, Abdur Rahmaan Ibn Mahdi, Abdullah lbn Mubarak, Imaam Shaafi’ee, Ibn Qaasim, Abu Aasim etc. etc. (May Allah be pleased with them all).
IMAAM MAALIK’ S (R.A.) LITERARY WORKS:
Qaazi Ayaadh has given the following list :
1. Kitaabul Mu’atta.
2. Risaalatu Maalik Ilaa Ibn Wahab Fil Qadr.
3 Al-Mudawwanatul Kubraa
4. Risaalatu Maalik Fil Aq’dhiyah.
5. Risaalatu Maalik Ilaa Gassaan Ibn Muhammad Ibn Mutarrif Fil Fatwaa.
6 . Risaalatu Maalik Ilaa Haaroonir Rasheed Al’ Mash’ hooratu Fil Aadaabi Wal
7. Tafseeru Ghareebil Qur’ aan
8 Kitaabus Sirr
9. Risaalatu Maalik Ilaa Layth Fi Ijmaa’i Ahlil Madinah.
IMAAM MAALIK’S CHARACTERISTICS:
-Imaam Maalik ( R. A.) was very cautious in procuring fatawaa.
-Imaam Maalik (R. A.) was very active within the conduct of Sunnah
-Imaam Maalik (R. A.) loathed innovations (bidaah).
-Matters of belief( aqaaid ) were very religiously followed by way of Qur’an and sunnah.
- Although during Imaam Maalik’ s ( R. A.) era there were many sects that arose, yet Imaam Maalik (RA.) refrained from enjoining with these.
- When the Holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam was mentioned, the colour of Imaam Maalik’ s (R.A.) face would change.
- Imaam Maalik (RA.) never recited a hadith without ablution.
- Caliph Harun Rashid requested that Imaam Maalik’s kitaab, Mu’atta, should be displayed in the Kaaba, and that all Muslims be imposed to follow Imaam Maalik within all jurisprudential matters. Imaam Maalik (R.A.) refused saying " Refrain from this as the Companions of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam themselves held opposing views within subsidiary masaail. The common folk already follow these differing views. All are upon the righteous path."
IMAAM MAALIK’ S METHOD OF TEACHING:
Imaam Maalik (RA) would appoint his specific writer; Habeeb, to recite Ahaadeeth from Mu’atta (a prestigious hadith kitaab compiled by Imaam Maalik (RA) ). The other students and participants would silently listen attentively, due to the fear and respect of lmam Maalik (R.A). No student would look into his kitaab or ask any questions. If Habeeb would make an error within the recital, Imaam Maalik (R. A) would promptly rectify the error. If the door was crowded with students lmam Maalik (R. A) would call them inside. Occasionally, Imaam Maalik (RA) would read himself from Mua’tta. Yahya Ibn Bukayr has stated: ‘I have heard the kitaab Muatta recited directly by Imaam Maalik (RA) a number of 14 times.,"
Imaam Maalik’s (R.A) daughter Fatima had memorised the kitaab Mu’atta; during lessons she would stand behind the door, if the recitor made an error, she would tap her nails on the door. Imaam Maalik (R. A) would understand her action and rectify the error.
Imaam Maalik’ s (RA) son Yahyaa later grew to become a great man of knowledge. He also journeyed to Egypt and conducted lessons of Ahaadeeth.
IMAAM MAALIK’S (R.A.) CHILDREN AND GRAND CHILDREN:
Ibn Hazm (R.A) has written : ‘Imaam Maalik (RA) had two boys; Yahyaa and Muhammed. One grandson Ahmed Ibne Yahyaa Ibne Malik.’
Imaam Malik (R.A) also had a daughter named Fatima.
IMAAM MAALIK’ S FATEFUL DEATH:
During the last few years of his life, Imaam Maalik (RA) preferred to remain alone. He never even used to attend the Jamaa’ at Friday prayer and used to say that not everyone can openly explain themselves.
According to another statement, Imaam Maalik (RA) imparted that he had a weak bladder. In this condition he found it to be disrespectful to visit Masjid-e-Nabawi (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam). He further stated that he did not wish to voice his illness as it would be likened to complaining upon that which Allah had procured him with. Hence, Imaam Maalik (RA) remained ill for a number of 22 days. On Monday 14th of Rabi-ul-Awwal 179 A H., Imaam Maalik (R.A) took leave from this world.
(To Allah we belong and to Him we shall return).
Ibn Kanaanaa and Ibn Zubyr performed Ghusl. Imaam Maalik’s son; Yahyaa and his student (calligrapher) Habeeb poured the water, and as Imaam Maalik (R.A) had willed, he was shrouded in a white cloth. Ameere Madeenah Abdul Azeez Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibraheem led the Janazah prayer. Before his death, Imaam Maalik (R.A) recited Tashah’hud (verification of the oneness of Allah) and then said:
‘With Allah is the command in the past and in the future’ .(Surah Ar Rum : part verse 4)
Article taken (with Thanks) from Darul-uloom Bury and central mosque.com