Allegation Fazail e Amaal Shirk Existence of Qutub and Abdaals

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(وأما النفع المتعدي والنفع للخلق وتدبير العالم فقد قالوا : هم تجري أرزاق العباد على أيديهم وينزلون بالعلم والوحي ويحفظون ويمسكون وغير ذلك من أفعال الملائكة .
والجواب : أن صالح البشر لهم مثل ذلك وأكثر منه ويكفيك من ذلك شفاعة الشافع المشفع فى المذنبين وشفاعته فى البشر كى يحاسبوا وشفاعته فى أهل الجنة حتى يدخلوا ثم بعد ذلك تقع شفاعة الملائكة . وأين هم من قوله : (وما أرسلناك إلا رحمة للعالمين )وأين هم من الذين ((يؤثرون على أنفسهم ولو كان بهم خصاصة)) ، وأين هـم ممن يدعون إلى الهدى ودين الحق ، ومن سن سنة حسنة ، وأين هم من قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ( إن من أمتى من يشفع فى أكثر من ربيعة ومضر ) ، وأين هم من الأقطاب والأوتاد والأغواث والأبدال والنجباء؟)

In this Fatwa Ibn Taymiyya is defending the opinion which says, that the Salih Muslims are better than the angels are. And he answers to those, who say: Yes, but the Angels can spread Rizq, use the Creation, administer the Universe and bring Wahy and guard and preserve humans. He says: The pious ones have this too and even more! (V4, P. 232)

Ibn Taymiyya confirms the existence of Qutb and Awtad and Ghawt.

وأين هم من الأقطاب والأوتاد والأغواث والأبدال والنجباء؟
In the same Fatwa he says at the end of the paragaph: and how can we compare the Angels with the Aqtab and Awtad and Abdal and Nujaba. (See Volume 4, P.232)

Ibn Taymiyya says the Awliya can have Kashf

About Kashf he says, that it is a part from the believe of ahlu sunnah, that the awliya can have kashf, like knowing things about veiled matters. But we shouldnt understand it wrong and say, that they know everything, this is kufr. But Allah can give trough dreams and Firasa and Ilham(Inspiration).

He says:
ومن أصول أهل السنة : التصديق بكرامات الأولياء وما يجري الله على أيديهم من خوارق العادات في أنواع العلوم والمكاشفات ، وأنواع القدرة والتأثيرات

And one of the foundations of the believe of Ahlu Sunnah is the believe in Karamat of Awliya and the miracles which Allah lets happen trough them in different sciences and in the mukhaschafat and the varioused ways of might and influence they have. (Volume3, P.103)

Ibn Tamiyya says, that Allah can give some Awliya "Kun"

Ibn Taymiyya confirms the narration that the servant of allah, when he swears or gives an oat, that allah realizes this for them.
And he narrates a Hadith in which it is said: "O my Slave, I say Kun faya Kun and if you obey me I will give you the ability of Kun faya Kun." see first link (Volume 4, P.230/231)

Ibn Taymiyya says, that the Awliya can get the ability to resurrect dead people, see scans. (An-Nubuwwat P. 807-808 und P. 821)


After quoting an extract from the book, Fadhaail-e-Aamaal, the objector states:

`Note: The Deobandi translator of Ikhmaalush Shiyaam defines Abdaal saying, Abdaal are a class of Awliyaa whose identities remain concealed. They possess miraculous powers and execute a variety of tasks under Divine command in various places of the world.’ (Ikhmaalush shiyaam Eng Trans p.59)

The Writer in his ‘note’ here, has quoted the definition of the Abdaal and thereafter refuted it by saying the words, ‘Astaghfirullah’.

After realising his ignorance, perhaps, he should repeat the Istighfaar. The presence of the Abdaal, their extraordinary qualities and powers that Almighty Allah has availed to them is a fact that has been proven through various Ahaadith.

Hafiz Suyooti (RA) has written a complete treatise regarding this topic in which he mentions, “There are several narrations regarding them. Among those are the narrations of: 1) Sayyiduna Umar ibn al-Khattaab, 2) Sayyiduna Ali, 3) Sayyiduna Hudhayfa, 4) Sayyiduna Anas, 5) Sayyiduna Ubaadah ibn Saamit, 6) Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Abbas, 7) Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Umar, 8) Sayyiduna Abdullah ibn Mas’ood, 9) Sayyiduna Awf ibn Maalik, 10) Sayyiduna Mu’aadh ibn Jabal, 11) Sayyiduna Waathila ibn al-Asqaa, 12) Sayyiduna Abu-Sa’eed al-Khudriy, 13) Sayyiduna Abu Hurayra, 14) Sayyiduna Abud-Dardaa, 15) Sayyidatuna Umm Salmah (Radhiallaahu Anhum ajma’ee) and many others which are impossible to be enumerated.” (al-Khabaru Daal vol.2 pg.455 of al-Haawi)

In fact, Hafiz Suyooti (RA) and others have accepted that the narrations concerning the Abdaal have reached the status of Tawaatur (highest form of authenticity). (refer Nazmul Mutanaathir minal hadithil mutaawatir pgs.231-232)

Hafiz ibn Hajar (RA) and others have also accepted the authenticity of some of the narrations in which the Abdaal are mentioned.

From the abovementioned narrations, the Hadith of Sayyiduna Anas (Radhiallaahu Anhu) has been classified as Hasan (sound) by Haafiz al-Haythami, the Hadith of Sayyiduna Ubaadah ibn Saamit (Radhiallaahu Anhu) and the Hadith of Sayyiduna ibn Abbaas (Radhiallaahu Anhu) has been classified as Sahih (authentic) by Haafiz ibn Arraaq (RA), the Hadith of Awf ibn Maalik (Radhiallaahu Anhu) has been classified as Hasan (sound) by Hafiz ibn Arraaq. (Tanzihus-Sharee’ah vol.2 pg.307) and the Hadith of Sayyiduna Ali is Hasan (sound) according to Allaamah Suyuti (RA). (Al-la’aaliy vol.2 pg.332) and Hafiz Sakhaawi (RA) has regarded all its narrators as reliable. (al-Maqaasidul Hasanah pg.28)

The following is a list of some of those illustrious Ulama and Muhadditheen that were regarded to be Abdaals, by the scholars of the classical times: 1) Imaam Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Abi Haatim (Muqaddamah ibnus-salaah pg.421), 2) Imaam Abu-Muslim al-Khawlaaniy (Al-Jaami of Khaatib Baghdadi pg.382), 3) Imaam Shaafi’ee (Al-Maqaasidul Hasanah pg.28 and Taarikh Dimishq), 4) Yazeed ibn al-Aswad (Taarikh Dimishq vol.6 pg.112), 5) Imaam Jaabir ibn Marzooq (al-Aadaab of Imaam Bayhaqi pg.326 – Hadith985), 6) al-Qa’anabiy, 7) Hammaad ibn Salamah (Tahzeeb of Haafiz ibn Hajar vol.3 pg.13; Hadith1767), 8) Abdullah ibn Mubaarak (Tahzeeb of ibn Hajar)

From the abovementioned facts, it is firstly apparent that the existence of Abdaals are authentically proven by various illustrious Ulama, let alone in the numerous Ahaadith. Secondly, like the existence of the sun during broad daylight, similar is the case here with the Abdaals. However, this does not mean that these Abdaals are equal to the prophets (Alayhis salaam) as deduced by the objector from the story. The objector states:

‘This story makes this so called Abdaal equal to prophet Moosa (Alayhis salaam) and our messenger Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) who spoke directly to Allah.’

First of all, to be common in one aspect does not necessitate equality in everything. If a person dresses like a prophet, does this make both of them equal? Did any of the prophets fly planes? Today, so many people can fly planes. Does this make them better or more knowledgeable than the prophets? Secondly, there is a world of difference between the Abdaals and the prophets (Alayhis salaam) in this very same action of speaking directly to Allah Ta’ala. The manner in which the prophets (Alayhis salaam) speak to Allah Ta’ala is far much different from the one that is between the Abdaals and Allah Ta’ala. In fact, in the holy Qur’aan, Allah Ta’ala states, ‘And your Lord said to the Ant ….’ Would any person in his sane mind even dare to irrationally claim that this ant is equal to any of the messengers of Allah Ta’ala?

The details of this will be explained under the discussion of Kashf and Ilhaam. In order to finally close the door on this discussion with regards to the Abdaal, we will suffice on quoting just one Hadith which will befittingly smash these objections into smitherings.

(Faculty of Specialty in Hadith Sciences
Madrasah In’aamiyyah, Camperdown)